1 THE PROBLEM: „ORDER“ OR „DISORDER“ IN NATURE?
Let the universe be created by an almighty God, or let it exist on its own cause and account - its development since, thus also its contemporary shape and structure, would be the result of the inherent natural laws, that have worked up to now for some billions of years.
Existence and actions of Man depend from the experience of a reliable well ordered world, and scientific efforts in fact succeeded in revealing a system of natural laws, that is hierarchically ordered and in a certain respect identical with the universe itself.
Thus, the human fundamental claim for reliability and order would be settled, if not one of the most basic laws, the second thermodynamic, would stir up this comfortable mental indolence by postulating a continuous growth of disorder in the world, a paradoxic contradiction to the empirical evidence of increasing order: Not only the natural laws figure as a wellordered system, but the empirical world itself shows us a multitude of highly ordered phenomena, in a most impressive manner e.g. as crystals and organisms, which obviously have evolved, starting from a presumed chaos of single particles, to highly ordered systems by means of nothing else than natural laws (or alternatively - but not really a constituent of scientific thought - by an „occasionally“ active „deus ex machina“): in contradiction to the second law, the world appears as a universe that organizes itself as a well ordered system.